Aug 9, 2012
Management by objectives (MBO): Quản lý theo mục tiêu
Management by objectives (MBO): Quản lý theo mục tiêu:
- Tập trung vào mục tiêu
- Dựa trên lượng tài nguyên có sẵn
- Để nhân viên hiểu rõ mục tiêu mà tổ chức, cá nhân họ cần đạt được
- Đánh giá nhân viên, tổ chức
- Các bước thực hiện
- Đặt mục tiêu
- Lập kế hoạch hành động
- Theo dõi
- Đánh giá hiệu quả
Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization in order to achieve them.
The term "management by objectives" was first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book 'The Practice of Management'.
The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course of actions and decision making. An important part of the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the employee's actual performance with the standards set. Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved with the goal setting and choosing the course of action to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their responsibilities.
According to George S. Odiorne, the system of management by objectives can be described as a process whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.
Các bước thực hiện:
Setting Objectives: Goal-setting or objective setting is a multistage process. It starts with the examining of the current state of affaires, level of efficiency, threats, and opportunities. Then the key result areas are identified, such as product markets, improved services, lowered costs, work simplification, employee motivation, profitability innovation and social responsibility. The performance of these areas is critical for organization in the sense that failure in these areas may result in failure of the organization. And this is why they are known as "key" result areas. Peter says, objectives are important in every area where performance and results directly affect the survival and prosperity of business.
Developing Action Plans: Set objectives must be translated into action plans. It requires assignment of specific responsibilities to different departments, division, and individuals. It also requires allocation of necessary resources needed to perform the assigned responsibilities. Time dimensions are also to be decided in order that targets are reached without any unwarranted delays.
Periodic Review or Monitoring The Progress: After setting objectives and developing action plans, it is necessary to establish a proper monitoring system with a view to regularly keeping the activities. He progress is monitored without day path leading to the ultimate objective. It is ensured that the deviations found, if any, are thoroughly discussed and immediate corrective actions are taken to set them right on the course. Such a regular monitoring and periodic review not only provide feedback which is essential for completion of work in time. But also motivates the managers accountable for performance. Periodic review and monitoring are done at departmental level generally.
Performance appraisal: This is the last phase of MBO program that evaluates performance annually. The annual review or appraisal is comprehensive and is done at the organization level. The actual annual results are evaluated against the set objectives. Such assessment is also used for determining targets for next year, for modification in standards (goals0 if needed, and for taking corrective actions in order to avoid deviations form predetermined objectives.